Voluntary Health Association of Punjab Vs Union of India & Others

Voluntary Health Association of Punjab

ORDERS DATED  16/09/2014- 16-09-2014

ORDERS DATED 13/01/2015– 13-01-2015

ORDERS DATED 20/01/2015- 20-01-2015

ORDERS DATED 18/02/2015- 2015-02-18_1424260248

ORDERS DATED 15/04/2015- 2015-04-15_1429101395

ORDERS DATED 06/05/2015- querycheck_page2 (1)





Voluntary Health Association of Punjab                                                ..Petitioner
Union of India & Others                                                                            .. Respondents


Indian society’s discrimination towards female child still exists  due
to various  reasons  which  has  its  roots  in  the  social  behaviour  and
prejudices against the female child and, due  to  the  evils  of  the  dowry
system, still prevailing in the society, in spite of its  prohibition  under
the Dowry Prohibition Act.  The decline in the female child ratio  all  over
the country leads  to  an  irresistible  conclusion  that  the  practice  of
eliminating female foetus by the use of pre-natal diagnostic  techniques  is
widely prevalent in this country.  Complaints are many, where at  least  few
of the medical professionals do perform Sex Selective Abortion  having  full
knowledge that the sole reason for  abortion  is  because  it  is  a  female
foetus.   The provisions of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy  Act,  1971
are also being consciously violated and misused.

The Parliament wanted  to  prevent  the  same  and  enacted  the  Pre-
Conception  and  Pre-Natal  Diagnostic  Techniques  (Prohibition   on   Sex-
Selection) Act, 1994 (for short ‘the Act’) which has its  roots  in  Article
15(2) of the Constitution of India.  The Act is a welfare legislation.   The
Parliament was fully conscious of the fact  that  the  increasing  imbalance
between men and women leads to increased crime against  women,  trafficking,
sexual  assault,   polygamy   etc.    Unfortunately,   facts   reveal   that
perpetrators of the crime also belong  to  the  educated  middle  class  and
often they do not perceive the gravity of the crime.

This Court, as early as, in 2001 in Centre for Enquiry into Health and
Allied Themes v. Union of India (2001) 5 SCC 577 had noticed the  misuse  of
the Act and gave various directions for  its  proper  implementation.   Non-
compliance of various directions was noticed by this Court again  in  Centre
for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes v. Union of  India  (2003)  8  SCC
398 and this Court gave various other directions.

Having noticed that those directions as well as the provisions of  the
Act are not being properly implemented  by  the  various  States  and  Union
Territories, we passed an order on 8.1.2013  directing  personal  appearance
of the Health Secretaries of the  States  of  Punjab,  Haryana,  NCT  Delhi,
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Maharashtra, to examine what steps  they
have taken for the proper and effective implementation of the provisions  of
the Act as well as the various directions issued by this Court.

We notice that, even though, the Union of India  has  constituted  the
Central Supervisory Board and most of the States and Union Territories  have
constituted State  Supervisory  Boards,  Appropriate  Authorities,  Advisory
Committees  etc.  under  the  Act,  but  their  functioning  are  far   from

2011 Census of India,  published  by  the  Office  of  the  Registrar
General and Census Commissioner of India, would show  a  decline  in  female
child sex ratio in many States of India from 2001-2011.  The  Annual  Report
on Registration of  Births  and  Deaths  –  2009,  published  by  the  Chief
Registrar of NCT of Delhi would also indicate a sharp decline in the  female
sex ratio in almost all the Districts.  Above statistics  is  an  indication
that the provisions of the  Act  are  not  properly  and  effectively  being
implemented.  There has been no effective supervision or  follow  up  action
so as to achieve the object and purpose of the Act.  Mushrooming of  various
Sonography Centres, Genetic Clinics, Genetic  Counselling  Centres,  Genetic
Laboratories, Ultrasonic Clinics, Imaging Centres in  almost  all  parts  of
the country calls for more vigil and attention by the authorities under  the
Act.    But,  unfortunately,  their  functioning  is  not   being   properly
monitored or supervised by the authorities under the  Act  or  to  find  out
whether  they  are  misusing  the  pre-natal   diagnostic   techniques   for
determination of sex of foetus leading to foeticide.

The Union of India has filed an affidavit in  September  2011  giving
the details of  the  prosecutions  launched  under  the  Act  and  the  Pre-
Conception  and  Pre-Natal  Diagnostic  Techniques  (Prohibition   on   Sex-
Selection) Rules, 1996 (for short ‘the Rules’), up to June  2011.   We  have
gone through the chart as  well  as  the  data  made  available  by  various
States, which depicts a sorry and an alarming state  of  affairs.   Lack  of
proper supervision and  effective  implementation  of  the  Act  by  various
States, are clearly demonstrated by  the  details  made  available  to  this
Court.  However, State of  Maharashtra  has  comparatively  a  better  track
record. Seldom, the ultrasound machines used for such sex  determination  in
violation of the provisions of the Act are seized and, even if seized,  they
are being released to the violators of the law only  to  repeat  the  crime.
Hardly few cases end in conviction.  Cases booked under the Act are  pending
disposal for several years in many Courts in the country  and  nobody  takes
any interest in their  disposal  and  hence,  seldom,  those  cases  end  in
conviction and sentences, a fact well known to the violators of law.    Many
of the ultra-sonography clinics seldom maintain  any  record  as  per  rules
and, in respect of the  pregnant  women,  no  records  are  kept  for  their
treatment and the provisions of the Act and the  Rules  are  being  violated
with impunity.

The  Central  Government  vide  GSR  80(E)  dated  7.2.2002  issued   a
notification amending the  Act  and  regulating  usage  of  mobile  machines
capable of detecting the sex of the foetus,  including  portable  ultrasonic
machines, except in cases to provide birth services to  patients  when  used
within its registered premises as part of the Mobile Medical  Unit  offering
a bouquet or other medical and  health  services.   The  Central  Government
also vide GSR 418(E) dated 4.6.2012 has notified an amendment  by  inserting
a new Rule 3.3(3) with  an  object  to  regulate  illegal  registrations  of
medical practitioners in genetic clinics, and  also  amended  Rule  5(1)  by
increasing the application fee for registration  of  every  genetic  clinic,
genetic  counselling  centre,  genetic  laboratory,  ultrasound  clinic   or
imaging centre and amended Rule 13 by providing that an  advance  notice  by
any centre for intimation of every change in place, intimation of  employees
and address.  Many of the clinics are totally unaware  of  those  amendments
and are  carrying  on  the  same  practises.   In  such  circumstances,  the
following directions are given:

1. The Central Supervisory Board and  the  State  and  Union  Territories
Supervisory Boards, constituted under Sections 7 and  16A  of  PN&PNDT
Act, would meet at least once in six months, so as  to  supervise  and
oversee how effective is the implementation of the PN&PNDT Act.

2. The State Advisory Committees and District Advisory Committees  should
gather information relating to the breach of  the  provisions  of  the
PN&PNDT Act and the Rules  and  take  steps  to  seize  records,  seal
machines and institute legal proceedings, if they notice violation  of
the provisions of the PN&PNDT Act.

3. The Committees mentioned  above  should  report  the  details  of  the
charges framed and the conviction of the persons  who  have  committed
the  offence,  to  the  State  Medical  Councils  for  proper  action,
including suspension of the registration of the unit and  cancellation
of licence to practice.

4. The authorities  should  ensure  also  that  all  Genetic  Counselling
Centres,  Genetic  Laboratories  and  Genetic   Clinics,   Infertility
Clinics,  Scan  Centres  etc.  using  pre-conception   and   pre-natal
diagnostic techniques and procedures should maintain all  records  and
all forms, required to be maintained under the Act and the  Rules  and
the duplicate copies of the same be sent  to  the  concerned  District
Authorities, in accordance with Rule 9(8) of the Rules.

5.  States  and  District  Advisory  Boards  should   ensure   that   all
manufacturers and sellers of ultra-sonography machines do not sell any
machine to any unregistered centre, as provided  under  Rule  3-A  and
disclose, on a quarterly basis, to the concerned State/Union Territory
and Central Government, a list of persons to whom  the  machines  have
been sold, in accordance with Rule 3-A(2) of the Act.

6. There will be a direction to all Genetic Counselling Centres,  Genetic
Laboratories, Clinics etc.  to  maintain  forms  A,  E,  H  and  other
Statutory forms provided under the Rules and if these  forms  are  not
properly  maintained,  appropriate  action  should  be  taken  by  the
authorities concerned.

7. Steps should also be taken by the State Government and the authorities
under the Act for mapping of all registered  and  unregistered  ultra-
sonography clinics, in three months time.

8. Steps  should  be  taken  by  the  State  Governments  and  the  Union
Territories to educate the people of the necessity of implementing the
provisions of the Act by conducting workshops  as  well  as  awareness
camps at the State and District levels.

9. Special Cell be constituted by the State  Governments  and  the  Union
Territories to monitor the progress of various cases  pending  in  the
Courts under the Act and take steps for their early disposal.

10. The authorities concerned should take  steps  to  seize  the  machines
which have been used illegally and contrary to the provisions  of  the
Act and the Rules thereunder and  the  seized  machines  can  also  be
confiscated under the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure and
be sold, in accordance with law.

11. The various Courts in this country should take steps to dispose of all
pending  cases  under  the  Act,  within  a  period  of  six   months.
Communicate this order to the Registrars of various High  Courts,  who
will take appropriate follow up action  with  due  intimation  to  the
concerned Courts.

All the State Governments are directed to file a status report  within
a period of three months from today.

Ordered accordingly.

New Delhi,
March 04, 2013.




Voluntary Health Association of Punjab       … Petitioner


Union of India and others                        … Respondents


Dipak Misra, J.

I  respectfully  concur  with  the  delineation  and  the  directions
enumerated in seriatim by my respected  learned  Brother.   However,  regard
being had to the signification of the issue, the magnitude  of  the  problem
in praesenti, and the colossal cataclysm that  can  visit  this  country  in
future unless apposite awareness  is  spread,  I  intend  to  add  something
pertaining to the direction No. (8).

2. To have a comprehensive view I think it seemly to reproduce  the  said
direction: –

“8.    Steps should be taken by the  State  Governments  and  the
Union Territories to educate  the  people  of  the  necessity  of
implementing the provisions of the Act by conducting workshops as
well as awareness camps at the State and District levels.”

3.  It  is  common  knowledge  that  the  State  Governments  and   Union
Territories some times hold workshops as well as  awareness  camps  at
the State and District levels  which  have  the  characteristic  of  a
routine performance, sans sincerity, bereft of seriousness  and  shorn
of meaning.  It is embedded on data-orientation.  It does not  require
Solomon’s wisdom to realize that there  has  not  yet  been  effective
implementation of the provisions of the Act, for there  has  not  only
been total lethargy and laxity but also failure on  the  part  of  the
authorities to give accent  on  social,  cultural,  psychological  and
legal awareness that a female foetus is not to be destroyed for many a
reason apart from command of the law.  Needless  to  emphasise,  there
has to be awareness of the legal provisions and the consequences  that
have been provided for violation of the Pre-Conception  and  Pre-Natal
Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition on Sex-Selection)  Act,  1994  (for
brevity “the Act”) but, a significant  one,  the  awareness  in  other
spheres are absolutely necessitous for concretizing  the  purposes  of
the Act.

4. Be it noted, this is not for the first time that this Court is showing
its concern.  It has also been done before.   In  Centre  for  Enquiry
into Health and Allied Themes (CEHAT) and others v. Union of India and
others[1], the two-Judge Bench commenced the judgment stating that the
practice of female infanticide still prevails despite  the  fact  that
the gentle touch of a daughter and her voice has a soothing effect  on
the parents.  The Court also commented on the  immoral  and  unethical
part of it as  well  as  on  the  involvement  of  the  qualified  and
unqualified doctors or compounders to  abort  the  foetus  of  a  girl
child.  It is apposite to state  here  that  certain  directions  were
given in the said decision.

5. Female foeticide has  its  roots  in  the  social  thinking  which  is
fundamentally  based  on  certain   erroneous   notions,   ego-centric
traditions, pervert perception of societal norms, and  obsession  with
ideas which are totally individualistic sans the collective good.  All
involved in female foeticide deliberately forget to realize that  when
the foetus of a  girl  child  is  destroyed,  a  woman  of  future  is
crucified.  To put it differently, the present generation invites  the
sufferings on its own and also sows the seeds  of  suffering  for  the
future generation, as in the ultimate eventuate, the  sex  ratio  gets
affected and leads to manifold social problems.  I may hasten  to  add
that no awareness campaign can ever be complete unless there  is  real
focus on the prowess of women and the need for women empowerment.

6. On many an occasion this Court has expressed  its  anguish  over  this
problem in many a realm.  Dealing with the  unfortunate  tradition  of
demand of dowry from the  girl’s  parents  at  the  time  of  marriage
despite the same being a criminal offence, a two-Judge Bench in  State
of H.P. v. Nikku Ram and others[2] has expressed its agony thus: –

“Dowry, dowry and dowry. This is the  painful  repetition  which
confronts, and at times haunts, many parents of a girl child  in
this holy land of ours where, in good old days the belief was  :
“???? ????????? ????????? ??????  ????  ?????:”  [ yatra  naryastu  pujyante
ramante tatra dewatah”] (where woman  is  worshipped,  there  is
abode of God). We have mentioned  about  dowry  thrice,  because
this demand is made on three  occasions:  (i)  before  marriage;
(ii) at the time of marriage;  and  (iii)  after  the  marriage.
Greed being limitless, the demands  become  insatiable  in  many
cases, followed by  torture  on  the  girl,  leading  to  either
suicide in some cases or murder in some.”

The aforesaid passage clearly reflects the degree of anguish  of  this
Court in regard to the treatment meted out to the women in this country.

7. It is not  out  of  place  to  state  here  that  the  restricted  and
constricted thinking with regard to a girl child eventually  leads  to
female foeticide.  A foetus in the womb, because she is likely  to  be
born as a girl child, is not allowed to see the mother earth.  In M.C.
Mehta v. State of Tamil Nadu and others[3], a three-Judge Bench, while
dealing with the magnitude of the problem in engagement of  the  child
labour in various hazardous factories or mines, etc., speaking through
Hansaria, J., commenced the judgment thus: –

“I am the child.

All the word waits for my coming.

All the earth watches with interest to see what I shall become.

Civilization hangs in the balance.

For what I am, the world of tomorrow will be.

I am the child.

You hold in your hand my destiny.

You determine, largely, whether I shall succeed or fail,

Give me, I pray you, these things that make for happiness.

Train me, I beg you, that I may be a blessing to the world.”

8.  The aforesaid lines from Mamie Gene Cole were treated as an appeal by
this Court and the Bench  reproduced  the  famous  line  from  William
Wordsworth “child is the father of the man”.  I  have  reproduced  the
same to highlight that this Court has laid  special  emphasis  on  the
term “child” as a child feels that the entire world waits for  his/her
coming.  A female child, as stated earlier, becomes a woman.  Its life-
spark cannot be extinguished in  the  womb,  for  such  an  act  would
certainly  bring  disaster  to  the  society.   On  such  an  act  the
collective can neither laugh today nor tomorrow.  There shall be tears
and tears all the way because eventually the  spirit  of  humanity  is

9. Vishwakavi Rabindranath Tagore, while speaking about a child, had said
thus: –

“Every  child  comes  with  the  message  that  God  is  not  yet
discouraged of man.”

10. Long back, speaking about human baby, Charles Dickens had said thus  :

“Every baby born into the world is a finer one than the last.”

11. A woman has to be regarded as an equal partner in the life of  a  man.
It has to be borne in mind that she has also the  equal  role  in  the
society,  i.e.,   thinking,   participating   and   leadership.    The
legislature has brought the  present  piece  of  legislation  with  an
intention to provide for prohibition of sex selection before or  after
conception and for regulation of pre-natal diagnostic  techniques  for
the purposes of detecting genetic abnormalities or metabolic disorders
or chromosomal abnormalities or certain  congenital  malformations  or
sex-linked disorders and for the prevention of their  misuse  for  sex
determination  leading  to  female  foeticide.   The  purpose  of  the
enactment can only be actualised and its  object  fruitfully  realized
when the authorities under the Act  carry  out  their  functions  with
devotion, dedication and commitment  and  further  there  is  awakened
awareness with regard to the role of women in a society.

12. It would not be an exaggeration to say that a society  that  does  not
respect its women cannot be treated to be  civilized.   In  the  first
part of the last century Swami Vivekanand had said: –

“Just as a bird could not fly with one wing only, a nation  would
not march forward if the women are left behind.”

13. When a female foeticide takes place, every woman who mothers the child
must remember that she is  killing  her  own  child  despite  being  a
mother.  That is what abortion would mean in social  terms.   Abortion
of a female child in its conceptual eventuality leads to killing of  a
woman.  Law prohibits it; scriptures forbid  it;  philosophy  condemns
it; ethics deprecate it, morality decries it and social science abhors
it.  Henrik Ibsen emphasized on  the  individualism  of  woman.   John
Milton treated her to be the best of all God’s work.  In this context,
it will be appropriate to quote a few lines from Democracy in  America
by Alexis De Tocqueville: –

“If I were asked … to what the singular prosperity and  growing
strength  of  that  people  [Americans]  ought   mainly   to   be
attributed, I should reply: to the superiority of their women.”

14. At this stage, I may with profit reproduce two  paragraphs  from  Ajit
Savant Majagvai v. State of Karnataka[4]: –

“3. Social thinkers, philosophers, dramatists, poets and writers
have eulogised the female species of the  human  race  and  have
always used beautiful epithets to describe her  temperament  and
personality and have not deviated  from  that  path  even  while
speaking of her odd behaviour, at times. Even in  sarcasm,  they
have not crossed the  literary  limit  and  have  adhered  to  a
particular standard of nobility of language. Even when a  member
of her own species, Madame De Stael, remarked “I am glad that  I
am not a man; for then I should have to marry  a  woman”,  there
was wit in it. When Shakespeare wrote, “Age cannot  wither  her;
nor custom stale, her infinite variety”, there  again  was  wit.
Notwithstanding that these writers have cried hoarse for respect
for “woman”, notwithstanding that Schiller said  “Honour  women!
They entwine and weave heavenly roses in our earthly  life”  and
notwithstanding that the Mahabharata mentioned her as the source
of salvation, crime against “woman” continues to rise  and  has,
today undoubtedly, risen to alarming proportions.

4. It is unfortunate that in an age where people  are  described
as civilised, crime against “female” is committed even when  the
child is in the womb as the “female” foetus is  often  destroyed
to prevent the birth of a female child. If that child comes into
existence, she starts her life as a  daughter,  then  becomes  a
wife and in due course, a mother. She rocks the cradle  to  rear
up her infant, bestows all her love on  the  child  and  as  the
child grows in age, she gives to the child all that she  has  in
her own personality. She shapes the destiny and character of the
child. To be cruel to such a creature is unthinkable. To torment
a wife can only be described as the most hated and derisive  act
of a human being.”

[Emphasis supplied]

15. In Madhu Kishwar v. State of  Bihar[5]  this  Court  had  stated  that
Indian  women  have  suffered  and  are  suffering  discrimination  in
silence.   Self-sacrifice  and  self-denial  are  their  nobility  and
fortitude  and  yet  they  have  been  subjected  to  all  inequities,
indignities, inequality and discrimination.

16. The way women had suffered has been aptly reflected by an  author  who
has spoken with quite a speck of sensibility: –

“Dowry is an intractable disease for women, a bed of  arrows  for
annihilating  self-respect,  but  without  the  boon  of  wishful

17. Long back, Charles Fourier had stated “The extension of women’s rights
is the basic principle of all social progress”.

18. Recapitulating from the past, I may refer to certain  sayings  in  the
Smritis which put women in an elevated position.  This Court in  Nikku
Ram’s case (supra) had  already  reproduced  the  first  line  of  the
“Shloka”.  The second line of the same which is also significant is as
follows: –

“???? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????????: ??????:”

[Yatra tastu na pujyante sarvastatraphalah kriyah]

A free translation of the aforesaid is reproduced below:-

“All the actions become unproductive in a place,  where  they  are
not treated with proper respect and dignity.”

19. Another wise man of the past had his own way of putting it:

“???????????????????????????????????: |

?????????? ???????: ??????: ???????????????: ||”

[Bhartr bhratr pitrijnati swasruswasuradevaraih| Bandhubhisca
striyah pujyah bhusnachhadanasnaih||].

A free translation of the aforesaid is as follows:-

“The women are to be respected  equally  on  par  with  husbands,
brothers, fathers, relatives, in-laws and other kith and kin  and
while respecting, the women gifts like ornaments, garments,  etc.
should be given as token of honour.”

20. Yet again, the sagacity got reflected in following lines: –

“????? ???? ??????: ????????????? |

?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ||”

[Atulam yatra tattejah sarvadevasarirajam| Ekastham tadabhunnari
vyaptalokatrayam tvisa||]

A free translation of the aforesaid is reproduced below:-

“The incomparable valour  (effulgence)  born  from  the  physical
frames of all  the  gods,  spreading  the  three  worlds  by  its
radiance and combining together took the form of a woman.”

21. From the past, I travel to the  present  and  respectfully  notice  what
Lord Denning had to say about the equality of women and  their  role  in
the society: –

“A woman feels as keenly, thinks as clearly, as a  man.   She  in
her sphere does work as useful as man does in his.   She  has  as
much right to her freedom – to develop  her  personality  to  the
full as a man.   When  she  marries,  she  does  not  become  the
husband’s servant but his equal partner.  If  his  work  is  more
important in life of the community, her’s is  more  important  of
the family.  Neither can do without the other.  Neither is  above
the other or under the other.  They are equals.”

22. I have referred to certain pronouncements of this Court, the sayings  of
the sagacious ones, thinkers, poets, philosophers and jurists about  the
child and women only to emphasise that they play a seminal role  in  the
society.  The innocence of a child and the creative  intelligence  of  a
woman can never ever be brushed aside or marginalized.  Civilization  of
a country is known how it respects its women.  It is  the  requisite  of
the present day that people are made aware  that  it  is  obligatory  to
treat the women with  respect  and  dignity  so  that  humanism  in  its
conceptual essentiality remains alive.  Each member of  the  society  is
required to develop a scientific temper in the  modern  context  because
that is the social need of the present.  A cosmetic  awareness  campaign
would never subserve the purpose.  The authorities  of  the  Government,
the Non-Governmental Organisations and other volunteers are required  to
remember  that  there  has  to  be  awareness  camps  which  are  really
effective.  The people involved with the same  must  take  it  up  as  a
service, a crusade.  They must understand and accept that it is  an  art
as well as a science and not simple  arithmetic.   It  cannot  take  the
colour of a routine speech.  The awareness camps should not  be  founded
on the theory of Euclidian geometry.  It  must  engulf  the  concept  of
social vigilance with an analytical mind and radiate into the marrows of
the society.  If awareness campaigns are not appositely  conducted,  the
needed guidance for the people would be without meaning and things shall
fall apart and everyone would try to take shelter in  cynical  escapism.
It is difficult to precisely state  how  an  awareness  camp  is  to  be
conducted.  It will depend upon what kind and strata of people are being
addressed to.  The persons  involved  in  such  awareness  campaign  are
required to equip  themselves  with  constitutional  concepts,  culture,
philosophy, religion, scriptural commands and injunctions,  the  mandate
of the law as engrafted under the Act and above all the  development  of
modern science.  It needs no special emphasis to state that in awareness
camps while the deterrent facets of law are required to  be  accentuated
upon, simultaneously  the  desirability  of  law  to  be  followed  with
spiritual obeisance, regard being had to the purpose of the Act, has  to
be stressed upon.  The seemly synchronization shall bring  the  required
effect.  That apart, documentary films can be  shown  to  highlight  the
need; and instill the idea in the mind of the public at large, for  when
mind becomes strong, mountains do melt.   The  people  involved  in  the
awareness campaigns should have boldness and courage.  There should  not
be any iota of confusion or perplexity in their thought or action.  They
should treat it as a  problem  and  think  that  a  problem  has  to  be
understood in a proper manner to afford a solution.  They should bear in
mind that they are required to change the mindset  of  the  people,  the
grammar  of  the  society  and  unacceptable  beliefs  inherent  in  the
populace.  It should be clearly spelt out that female foeticide  is  the
worst type of dehumanisation of the human race.

23. I  have  highlighted  the  aforesaid  aspects  so  that  when  awareness
campaigns are held, they are kept in view, for that is  the  object  and
purpose to have real awareness.

24. The matter be listed as directed.

[Dipak Misra]

New Delhi;
March 04, 2013.
[1]    (2001) 5 SCC 577

[2]    (1995) 6 SCC 219

[3]    AIR 1997 SC 699

[4]    (1997) 7 SCC 110

[5]    AIR 1996 SC 1864


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